Hyperspectral imaging allows recording the whole emission spectrum for every pixel on the entire image by integrating the concepts of spectroscopy and digital photography.
FREMONT, CA: Hyperspectral imaging is a revolutionary endoscopic optical imaging technology that improves picture contrast by changing the illumination of traditional endoscopes using wavelength dispersion devices.
Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a hybrid optical diagnostics technique. It extracts spectroscopic information from an image and displays it as an image. The spectral range can be measured continuously with traditional spectroscopy, but only for a single analyte spot. The HSI allows recording the whole emission spectrum for every pixel on the entire image by integrating the concepts of spectroscopy and digital photography.
The HSI systems can generate a three-dimensional ‘data tube’ of spatial and spectral information for the entire image at each wavelength of interest. Alternately, HSI can be used to map the morphology and physiology of tissues in space. Similarly, the whole spatial information for a given wavelength can be seen. The source of every spectrum on samples can be established using spatial information, allowing for a more thorough investigation of light interactions with the disease. As a result, HSI may diagnose various pathological disorders based on the spectrum radiated by each pixel in the images.
The HSI system transmits information about molecular expression in healthy and sick tissues using visible and near-infrared (400–2500 nm) light. As a result, HSI typically covers a larger area of the entire light spectrum, with added spectral bands (up to a few hundred) and better spectral resolution than multispectral photography (such as RGB color cameras). As a result, although traditional multispectral imaging may overlook essential spectral information for the diagnosis, HSI may capture small spectrum differences under various clinical situations. A spectral signature can also be created as a curve that connects the light to the target region.
The spectral signature is then used as an indicator of the diverse biochemical components found in distinct tissues, allowing healthy and diseased tissue to be distinguished. In other words, by extracting the spectral reflectance curve information of the pixels in the image and assessing the tissue situation accordingly, HSI may diagnose various disease situations. As a result, HSI holds promise as a non-invasive auxiliary tool for discriminating between normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells.