When drugs are consumed in the traditional way, we are exposing our entire body to it rather than just the area where it should be intended, nanotechnology has delivered the possibility of delivering drugs to affected cells using nanoparticles. Nanomedicine is medical applications of nanomaterial, biological devices and, nanoelectronic biosensors. The advantage of using nanoscale for medical technologies is that nanodevices are faster, more sensitive, can be implanted with just a superficial cut and the biochemical reaction time is also brief when compared to typical drug delivery. The effectiveness of drug delivery through nanomedicine mostly depends on.
• Efficient encapsulation of the drugs.
• Drug delivery to the targeted region of the body
• Successful release of the drug
Nanoparticles can be targeted to avoid the body's defense mechanisms that can improve drug delivery. Complex drug delivery mechanisms are being developed like drugs placed in the body can be activated on a signal, this type of drug delivery systems may also be able to prevent tissue damage through controlled drug release, reduced drug clearance rates, a minimum effect of the drug on nonaffected tissue.
Nanoparticles differ in characteristics. For example, DNA origami shaped nanoparticles are not recognized as a foreign element by the host’s immune system. Such nanoparticles can be used to administrate the drugs to diseased cells while at the same time deceive the body’s immune system as its own, therefore reducing the side effects associated with the drug.
It is important to use the right nanoparticle with the drug it needs to deliver and the particular tissue or tumor where it has to be delivered. Nanoparticles have shown strong anti-tumor responses in HER2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive breast cancers. The nanoparticle is coated with antibodies designed to target the HER2 receptor, once delivered to the targeted region, it attacks the HER2 tumor and then directs the immunity cells to recognize the tumor cells to fight it.
While the advancement of research proves that targeting and distribution of drugs can be augmented by nanoparticles, the dangers of nanotoxicity become a crucial next step in the further understanding of their medical uses and environmental impact of nanoscale materials.